In 2013, a team at Harvard successfully showed that aspects of the aging process may be reversible. They treated old mice with a compound called NMN (NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE), a direct precursor supplement to NAD. Remarkably, after only 10 days of treatment, key biological markers used to measure the aging process, resembled those of much younger mice. It was the human equivalent of a 60-year old, with some biomarkers reversed to resemble those of a 20-year old. Read the article at Harvard Medical School "A New—and Reversible—Cause of Aging".
As we age, NAD+ levels fall. In simple terms, this is the core concept that is behind the science, a clear link between falling NAD levels and aging. This rate of decline is greater than the body’s own natural ability to maintain an adequate supply of NAD+. NMN Nicotinamide Mononucleotide is a direct NAD+ precursor supplement that helps to replenish the NAD+ supply. It has been established in principle, by treating old mice with NMN, that at least some biometric markers used to measure the aging process can be reversed.
Why is NAD+ so critical?
There are three fundamental functions that require NAD+ which are critical for the normal operation of all living cells. First, NAD+ is responsible for the production of ATP, the chemical energy necessary to sustain life. For example, turning food into energy requires the NAD+/NADH redox cycle which drives mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Secondly, SIRTUINS, the so-called "longevity-genes" that regulate or silence other genes, do not work without an adequate supply of NAD+. Thirdly, NAD+ is a facilitator and a substrate that is used for the repair of broken DNA strands. Together SIRTUINS and NAD help to maintain the integrity of the genetic code by protecting against various epigenetic mutations.
What causes NAD+ levels to fall?
NAD levels decline over time because NAD+ is used and CONSUMED as a substrate by SIRTUINS, DNA-Repair enzymes and aggressively by another enzyme called CD38 for calcium balancing and immune function response. Inflammatory cytokines released by the immune system causes the production of CD38. The problem is further exacerbated, at least in theory by senescent cells, cells that can no longer divide but increasingly causes the release of even more inflammatory cytokines and more CD38 expression. Eventually, more NAD gets consumed than the ability to replenish the supply, leading to the over-all decline that is experienced with aging.
It is now evident that supporting the NAD pool is vital for promoting good health & wellness, especially as we age. So far early trial data showed that NMN 100mg, 250mg and 500mg doses are safe for human consumption with no adverse effects.
June 2021 Results (250mg NMN) - Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women
University of Tokyo – June 9th,2021
Sixty-five elderly men aged 65 years and above were screened
for the study, which was conducted between July 2019 and November 2019 and
registered on UMIN-CTR under the identifier UMIN000036321.
“We report that supplementation of 250 mg/d NMN for 12 weeks
in healthy old men was safe, well tolerated, and significantly increased NAD+
and NAD+ metabolites in whole blood. Additionally, NMN induced improvements in
muscle strength and performance.”
Whole blood was collected at baseline and at the 12-week
visit from participants for subsequent analysis of NAD+ and related metabolites
using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As shown in Figure 2,
oral NMN supplementation effectively elevated the levels of NMN and NAD+ as
compared to the placebo.